See the question and my original answer on StackOverflow

One can define custom Windows Properties and register them using the PSRegisterPropertySchema function. Note registration and unregistration needs admin right so is usually done at install/uninstall time.

The "special treatment" you see is defined in the schema.

Now, adding these properties in a a Shell View is only possible per file type as stated here: Initializing Property Handlers / Before you begin

Property handlers are always associated with specific file types; thus, if your file format contains properties that require a custom property handler, you should always register a unique file name extension for each file format.

For cloud based placeholder files, you can register a custom property handler with the package itself using the desktop3:ExtendedPropertyHandler Xml element in the manifest.