See the question and my original answer on StackOverflow

What you can do is add an xml attribute to your descriptor to define a custom TypeConverter type name, for example:

<cf:descriptor name='fullTextIndexTypeColumn'
            category='Full Text Index'
            displayName='Type Column'
            description='The type column for the full text index.'
            typeConverterTypeName='ClassLibrary1.MyAspectConverter, ClassLibrary1'

Then you need to implement the MyAspectConverter class (here in a ClassLibrary1.dll), for example like this:

public class MyAspectConverter : StringConverter
    public override bool GetStandardValuesSupported(ITypeDescriptorContext context)
        return true;

    public override StandardValuesCollection GetStandardValues(ITypeDescriptorContext context)
        var list = new List<string>();
        var property = TypeNameEditor.GetObject<Property>(context);
        if (property != null && property.Entity != null)
            list.AddRange(property.Entity.Properties.Where(p => p.IsPersistent).Select(p => p.Name));
        return new StandardValuesCollection(list);

ClassLibrary1 needs to reference CodeFluent.Runtime.dll, CodeFluent.Model.Common.dll and CodeFluent.Model.dll (in general from C:\Program Files (x86)\SoftFluent\CodeFluent\Modeler).

You will need to copy the ClassLibrary1.dll that contains this converter to Visual Studio where the IDE can load it from, for example in C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 14.0\Common7\IDE for Visual Studio 2015.

Note if you define your aspect in code, you can put this converter class in the same DLL, but you'll always need to copy it in Visual Studio directory.

Restart Visual Studio, and you should see something like this in the Visual Studio property grid:

enter image description here

As stated in the comments, you can also create a UITypeEditor using the same principle, if you need more advanced editing (and use the 'editorTypeName' XML attribute instead of the 'typeConverterTypeName' attribute), but it's not needed for a list of strings.